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Publications 2010-present


Bischops, A.C., Sieper, L., Dukart, J., Schaal, N.K., Reinauer, C., Oommen, P., Tomoiaga, C., David, O., Mayatepek, E., Meissner, T. (2024). Resilience strengthening in youth with a chronic medical condition: a randomized controlled feasibility trial of a combined app  and coaching program. European Child an Adolescence Psychiatry, doi: 10.1007/s00787-024-02395-w

Ernsten, L., Körner, L. M., Heil, M., Schaal, N. K. (2024). The association between 2D:4D digit ratio and sex-typed play in children with and without siblings. Scientific Reports, 14, 15231. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-65739-1


Amiel Castro, R.*, Schaal, N. K.*, Meyerhoff, H., Preis, H., Mahaffey, B., Lobel, M., La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, P. (2023). Investigating Factors Influencing Prenatal Stress, Anxiety, and Fear of Childbirth During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany and Switzerland: An Online Survey. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 27(10):1864-1875. doi: 10.1007/s10995-023-03758-6 (* geteilte Erstautorenschaft)

Schaal, N. K., La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, P., Märthesheimer, S., Hepp, P., Preis, H., Mahaffey, B., Lobel, M., Amiel Castro, R. (2023). Associations of stress, anxiety, and partner satisfaction with maternal-fetal attachment in women pregnant during the  COVID-19 pandemic: an online study. BMC Pregnancy and Childcare, 23:483, doi: 10.1186/s12884-023-05804-1

Assmann, A. K., Assmann, A., Waßenberg, S., Kojcici, B., Schaal, N. K., Lichtenberg, A., Ennker, J., Albert, A. (2023). The impact of socio-demographic factors on health-related quality of life after coronary artery bypass surgery. Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, 36(2):ivad014. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivad014.

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Kavšek, M., Heil, M., & Granrud, C.E. (2022). Holistic face processing in 4- and 7-month-old infants. Infancy, 27, 1052-1067. Holistic face processing in 4‐ and 7‐month‐old infants - Kavšek - 2022 - Infancy - Wiley Online Library


Lobel, M. Preis, H., Mahaffey, B. Schaal, N. K. et al. (2022). Common model of stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in pregnant women from seven high-income Western countries at the COVID-19 pandemic onset. Social Science & Medicine, 315: 115499.


Schaal, N.K., Zöllkau, J., Hepp, P. et al. (2022). Pregnant and breastfeeding women’s attitudes and fears regarding the COVID-19 vaccination. Archives of Gynecology and Obstretic, 306, 365-372.


Bushell, W., Heil, M., Ventura, T., Gomes, M. C., Körner, L. M., Lawrenz, J., Schaal, N. K., Richards, G. (2021). A Pre-registered Meta-analysis Based on Three Empirical Studies Reveals No Association Between Prenatal (Amniotic) Cortisol Exposure and Fluctuating Asymmetry in Human Infants, Evolutionary Biology, 48, 54–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11692-020-09523-9

Hepp, P., Fleisch, M., Hasselbach, K, Fehm, T., Schaal, N. K. (2021). Use of music during vaginal birth and caesarean section- an interprofessional survey, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05958-9

Schaal, N. K., La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, P., Preis, H., Mahaffey, B., Lobel, M., Amiel Castro, R. (2021). The German version of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale: a validation study, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 256, 40-45.

Schaal, N. K., Brückner, J., Wolf, O.T., Ruckhäberle, E., Fehm, T., Hepp, P. (2021). The effects of a music intervention during port catheter placement on anxiety and stress, Scientific Reports, 11:5807.

Ernsten, L., Körner, L.M., Heil, M., Richards, G., & Schaal, N. K. (2021). Investigating the reliability and sex differences of digit lengths, ratios, and hand measures in infants. Scientific Reports, 11, 10998. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89590-w




Körner, L., Schaper, M.-L., Pause, B. M. & Heil, M. (2020). Parent-reports of sex-typed play preferences in preschool children: Relationship to 2D:4D digit ratio and older siblings' sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01662-6

Meng, M., Fath, S., Dombrowski, J. H., Schildein, S. & Körber, B. (2020). Der Einfluss sozialer Exklusion auf die Gefahrenwahrnehmung in polizeilichen Einsatzsituationen. Polizei & Wissenschaft, 1, 27-40.

Schaal, N. K., Assmann, A., Rosendahl, J., Mayer-Berger, W., Ullrich, S., Lichtenberg A., Akhyari, P., Heil, M., Ennker J., Albert, A. (2020). Health-Related Quality of Live after Heart Surgery - an interplay of somatic and socio-demographic factors: a cohort study. International Journal of Surgery, 76, 171-177.

Schaal, N. K.,  Fehm, T., Wolf , O., Gielen, P., Hagenbeck, C., Heil, M. , Fleisch, M., Hepp, P. (2020). Comparing the course of anxiety in women receiving their first compared to repeated caesarean section: a prospective study. Women and Birth, 33, 280-285.

Schaal, N.K.*, Hepp. P.*, Heil, M., Wolf, O.T., Hagenbeck, C., Fleisch, M., Fehm, T. (2020). Postoperative anxiety levels, mothers’ age and parity influence on duration of hospitalisation after caesarean sections. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 248, 252-256. (* geteilte Erstautorenschaft)


Erdmann, K., Schaal, N. K., Meinlschmidt, G., Tegethoff, M., Fröhlich, S., Kozlowski, P., Rivet, N., Jamey, C., Reix, N., Kintz, P., Raul, J. S., & Heil, M. (2019). Sex specific relationships between infants’ mental rotation ability and amiotic sex hormones. Neuroscience Letters,707:e134298.

Ernsten, L.*, Hepp, P.*, Fehm, T., & Schaal, N. K. (2019). Perioperative musikinduzierte Analgesie - Vergleich der Wirkung von Musik zwischen prä-, intra- und postoperativer Anwendung. Der Schmerz. 33, 100-105 (* shared first authors)

Herff, S., Olsen, K. N., Anic, A., Schaal, N. K. (2019). Investigating cumulative disruptive interference in memory for melodies, words, and pictures. New Ideas in Psychology, 55, 68-77.

Körner, L. M., Pause, B. M., Meinlschmidt, G., Tegethoff, M., Fröhlich, S., Kozlowski, P., . . . Heil, M. (2019). Prenatal testosterone exposure is associated with delay of gratification and attention problems/overactive behavior in 3-year-old boys. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 104, 49-54. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.02.014

Schaal, N. K., Hepp, P., Schweda, A., Wolf, O.T., Krampe, C. (2019). A fNIRS study on the cortical hemodynamic responses during the Maastricht Acute Stress Test. Scientific Reports, 9:13459

Schaal, N. K., Fehm, T., Albert, J., Heil, M., Pedersen, A., Fleisch, M & Hepp, P. (2019). Comparing birth experience and birth outcome between induced and spontaneous vaginal births: A prospective study. Archives of Gynecology and Obstretics, 300, 41-47.

Schmelter, V., Antonaci, L., Fröhlich, S., Herebian, D., Verde, P., Heil, M., & Hoehn, T. (2019). Quantification of fetal steroids in nails of neonates to quantify growth restriction and prenatal stress. Biological Psychology, 140, 81-85.

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Erdmann, K., & Heil, M. (2018). Säuglinge präferieren geschlechtsunabhängig eine Gruppe gegenüber einem Einzelindividuum. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 50, 184-191.

Erdmann, K., Kavšek, M., & Heil, M. (2018). Infants’ looking times in a dynamic mental rotation task: Clarifying inconsistent results. Cognitive Development, 48, 279-285.

Heil, M., Krüger, M., Krist, H., Johnson, S. P., & Moore, D. S. (2018). Adults’ sex difference in a dynamic mental rotation task: Validating infant results. Journal of Individual Differences, 39, 48-52.

Hepp, P.. Hagenbeck, C. D., Gilles, J.,  Wolf, O. T., Goertz, W., Janni, W., Balan, P., Fleisch, M., Fehm, T., Schaal, N. K. (2018). Effects of Music Intervention during Caesarean Section on Anxiety and Stress of the Mother. BMC Pregnancy and Childcare, 18: 435.

Herff, S., Dean, R., & Schaal, N. K. (2018). Context effects of background babbling on memory for melodies. Musicae Scientiae. doi: 10.1177/1029864918779415

Rivet, N., Jamey, C., Reix, N., Kintz, P., Heil, M., Erdmann, K., Körner, L. M., Lawrenz, J., Fröhlich, S., Kozlowski, P., Meinlschmidt, G., Tegethoff, M., & Raul, J.-S. (2018). Quantifying steroid hormones in amniotic fluid by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry [version 1; referees: awaiting peer review]. F1000Research, 7, 1736.

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Ackermann, T., Fiedler, D. & Schaal, N. K. (2017) 14th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC), San Francisco (USA), 5.-9. Juli 2016. In Auhagen W., Bullerjahn C., Höge H. (Hrsg.), Jahrbuch der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Musikpsychologie, Band 27, 234-238.

Pollok, B., Stephan, K., Krause, V., Keitel, A., & Schaal, N. K. (2017). Precise Timing in Professional Drummers – The Functional Significance of the Posterior Parietal Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11:183. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00183.

Schaal, N. K., Kretschmer, M., Keitel, A., Krause, V., Pfeifer, J., & Pollok, B. (2017).   The significance of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for pitch memory in non-musicians depends on baseline performance. Frontiers in Neuroscience,  11:677 doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00677

Schaal, N. K., Pollok, B. & Banissy, M. (2017). Hemispheric differences between left and right supramarginal gyrus for pitch and rhythm memory. Scientific Reports, 7, 42456; doi: 10.1038/srep42456.

Wulff, V., Hepp, P., Fehm, T., & Schaal, N. K. (2017). Music in Obstetrics: An Intervention Option to Reduce Tension, Pain and Stress. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, 77(9),  967-975. DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-11841.

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Hepp, P., Hagenbeck, C., Burghard, B., Jaeger, B. Wolf, O.T., Fehm, T., & Schaal, N. K. (2016). Measuring the course of anxiety induced by caesarean section: A prospective study. BMC Pregnancy and Childcare, 16:113.

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Schaal, N. K., Williamson, V. J., Kelly, M., Muggleton, N. G., Pollok, B., Krause, V., & Banissy, M. J. (2015). A causal involvement of the left supramarginal gyrus during the retention of musical pitches. Cortex, 64, 310-317.

Schaal, N. K., Banissy, M. J., & Lange, K. (2015). The rhythm span task: Comparing memory capacity for musical rhythms in musicians and non-musicians. Journal of New Music Research, 44(1), 3-10.

Schaal, N. K., Homayoun Javadi, A., Halpern, A.R., Pollok, B., & Banissy, M. (2015). Right parietal cortex mediates memory for melodies. European Journal of Neuroscience, 42(1), 1660-1666.

Schaal, N. K., Krause, V., Lange, K., Banissy, M. J., Williamson, V. J., & Pollok, B. (2015). Pitch Memory in non-musicians and musicians: Revealing functional differences using transcranial direct current stimulation. Cerebral Cortex, 25(9), 2774-2782.

Schaal, N. K., Pfeifer, J., Krause, V., & Pollok, B. (2015). From amusic to musical? - Improving pitch memory in congenital amusia with transcranial alternating current stimulation. Behavioural Brain Research, 294, 141-148.

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Pellkofer, J., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2014). Sex-specific lateralization of event-related potential effects during mental rotation of polygons. NeuroReport, 25, 848-853.

Quaiser-Pohl, C., Neuburger, S., Heil, M., Schmelter, A., & Jansen, P. (2014). Is the male advantage in mental-rotation performance task independent? On the usability of chronometric tests and paper-and-pencil tests in children. International Journal of Testing, 14, 122-142.

Schaal, N. K., Bauer, A-K. R. & Müllensiefen, D. (2014). Der Gold-MSI: Replikation und Validierung eines Fragbogeninstrumentes zur Messung Musikalischer Erfahrenheit anhand einer deutschen Stichprobe. Musicae Scientiae, 18(4), 423-447.

Schaal, N. K., Krause, V., Lange, K., Banissy, M. J., Williamson, V. J. & Pollok, B. (2014). Pitch Memory in non-musicians and musicians: Revealing functional differences using transcranial direct current stimulation. Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu075.

Schnürch, R., Kreitz, C., Heil, M., & Lange, K. (2014). The change-deafness phenomenon in harmonic chords. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73, 143-152.


Jansen, P., Schmelter, A., Quaiser-Pohl, C., Neuburger, S., & Heil, M. (2013). Mental rotation performance in primary school age children: Are there gender differences in chronometric tests? Cognitive Development, 28, 51-62.

Neuburger, S., Ruthsatz, V., Jansen, P., Heil, M., & Quaiser-Pohl, C. (2013). Acceptance and effects of role models in the spatial domain. A storytelling experiment with fourth graders. Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2, 73-88.

Schaal, N.K., Williamson, V. J. & Banissy, M. J. (2013). Anodal transcranial direct curremt stimulation over the supramarginal gyrus fascilitates pitch memory. European Journal of Neuroscience, 38(19), 3513-3518.


Finis, J., Moczidlowski, A., Pollok, B., Biermann-Ruben, K., Thomalla, G., Heil, M., Krause, H., Jonas, M., Schnitzler, A., & Münchau, A. (2012). Echoes from childhood - imitation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Movement Disorders, 27, 562-565.

Heil, M., Jansen, P., Quaiser-Pohl, C., & Neuburger, S. (2012). Gender-specific effects of artificially induced gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 350-353.

Küper, K., & Heil, M. (2012). Attentional focus manipulations affect naming latencies of neutral but not of incongruent Stroop trials. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71, 93-100.

Lange, K. (2012). The temporal orienting P3-effect to non-target stimuli: Does it reflect motor inhibition? Biological Psychology, 89, 433-443. 

Neuburger, S., Jansen, P., Heil, M., & Quaiser-Pohl, C. (2012). A threat in the classroom: Gender stereotype activation and the mental-rotation performance of elementary-school children. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 220, 61-69.

Pellkofer, J., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2012). Lateralization of ERP effects during mental rotation of polygons. NeuroReport, 23, 585-589.

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Heil, M., Kavsek, M., Rolke, B., Beste, C., & Jansen, P. (2011). Mental rotation in female fraternal twins: Evidence for intra-uterine hormone transfer? Biological Psychology, 86, 90-93.

Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2011). Untersuchung der kortikalen Plastizität nach einem musikalischen, sportiven bzw. tänzerischen Training bei Kindern im Vorschulalter. In A. Heine & A. M. Jacobs (Hrsg.), Lehr-Lern-Forschung unter neurowissenschaftlicher Perspektive (pp. 147-151). Münster: Waxmann.

Jansen, P., Heil, M., & Lange, L. F. (2011). The influence of juggling on mental rotation performance in children. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 3, 18-22.

Jansen, P., Schmelter, A., Kasten, L., & Heil, M. (2011). Impaired mental rotation performance in overweight children. Appetite, 56, 766-769.

Lampar, A. L., & Lange, K. (2011). Effects of temporal trial-by-trial cuing on early and late stages of auditory processing: Evidence from event-related potentials. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 73, 1916-1933.

Lange, K. (2011). The reduced N1 to self-generated tones: An effect of temporal predictability? Psychophysiology, 48, 1088-1095.

Neuburger, S., Jansen, P., Heil, M., & Quaiser-Pohl, C. (2011). Gender differences in pre-adolescents’ mental-rotation performance: Do they depend on grade and stimulus type? Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1238-1242.

Titze, C., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2011). Single-sex school girls outperform girls attending a co-educative school in mental rotation performance. Sex Roles, 65, 704-711.

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Beste, C., Heil, M., & Konrad, C. (2010). Individual differences in ERPs during mental rotation of characters: Lateralization, and performance level. Brain and Cognition, 72, 238-243.

Beste, C., Heil, M., Domschke, K., & Konrad, C. (2010). The relevance of the functional 5-HT1A receptor polymorphism for attention and working memory processes during mental rotation of characters. Neuropsychologia, 48, 1248-1254.

Beste, C., Heil, M., Domschke, K., Baune, B. T., & Konrad, C. (2010). Associations between the tumor nekrosis factor alpha gene (-308G->A) and event-related potential indices of attention and mental rotation. Neuroscience, 170, 742-748.

Hahn, N., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). Preschoolers’ mental rotation: Sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 1244-1250.

Hahn, N., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). Preschoolers‘ mental rotation of letters: Sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 261-267.

Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). Gender differences in mental rotation across adulthood. Experimental Aging Research, 36, 94-104.

Jansen, P., Schmelter, A., & Heil, M. (2010). Spatial knowledge acquisition in younger and elderly adults: A study in a virtual environment. Experimental Psychology, 57, 54-60.

Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). The relation between motor development and mental rotation ability in 5- to 6-year-old children. European Journal of Developmental Science, 4, 67-75.

Küper, K., & Heil, M. (2010). Letter search and relatedness proportion: Further electrophysiological evidence for the automaticity of semantic activation. Neuroscience Letters,482, 26-30.

Lange, K., & Röder, B. (2010). Temporal orienting in audition, touch, and across modalities. In A. C. Nobre & J. T. Coull (Eds.), Attention and Time (pp. 393-405). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lange, K. (2010). Can a regular context induce temporal orienting to a target sound? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 78, 231-238.

Lange, L. F., Heil, M., & Jansen, P. (2010). Does children’s left hemisphere lateralization during mental rotation depend upon the stimulus material? Journal of Individual Differences, 31, 91-94.

Titze, C., Heil, M., & Jansen, P. (2010). Pairwise presentation of cube figures does not reduce gender differences in mental rotation performance. Journal of Individual Differences, 31, 101-105.

Titze, C., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). Mental rotation performance and the effect of gender in fourth graders and adults. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 432-444.

Titze, C., Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). Mental rotation performance in fourth graders: No effects of gender beliefs (yet?). Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 459-463.

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